BUGZ is designed to be intuitive, however to help you get the most out of its features we have put together some documentation to aid you in your literature searching.



BUGZ is here to help you find relevant articles about a given species or topic.

Basic Searching

The simplest type of search that BUGZ can do is a basic search. This will search for any documents which contain the given words anywhere in the full text of the article or its metadata (e.g., title, author). It will match plurals with their singulars (e.g., “fly” matches “flies” and vice-versa) but it will not search for taxonomic synonyms (see Advanced Searching).

To do a basic search, navigate to the search page. Then type your query into the search box and hit enter.

Advanced Searching

In addition to basic searches, BUGZ can search just the title and author of an article, for articles in a given date range, or even look for synonyms of taxonomic names. You can utilize different parameters of an advanced search, and even a basic search, at the same time.

To do an advanced search, navigate to the home page and click “Advanced Search”. You can then use the panel on the left to configure the advanced search parameters. When you are done, click the search button at the bottom of the panel.

Searching by Title or Author

When a search is done using the title and author parameters, they will be matched against the titles and authors of articles, respectively.

Searching by Taxonomic Name

When a search is done using a taxonomic name, BUGZ communicates with New Zealand Organisms Register (NZOR) to find any alternative names that are currently used or have been used for that same group of organisms. These are then matched against the article content and metadata in the same way as for a basic search.

For example, if you were to do a search for the taxonomic name “coleoptera”, then BUGZ would return articles matching either “coleoptera” or “beetles”. Another example would be searching for “cephaloziella byssacea”, which would return both articles matching “byssacea” and articles matching “divaricata” (listed as an alternative name in NZOR).

Searching by Date Range

When a search is done with a date range specified, only articles that were published after the start and before the end of the date range will be shown. BUGZ only has data for the year that the articles were published, so they are considered to have been published on the first day of that year (1st of Jan).

Search Results

Search results are grouped into pages. If there are too many articles to fit on one page, then you can view more results by clicking the right-arrow at the top or bottom of the results.

In addition to some brief information about the article, you are given the option to view more details about the article, open the article in BUGZ's web viewer, or download the article as a PDF. You can find more options for downloading citations on the article details page.

Viewing Details

The article details page contains details about the article in question. In addition to this, there is a panel on the left-hand side with additional actions, such as downloading citations, downloading the article as a pdf, or opening the article in the web viewer.

Downloading Citations

BUGZ allows exporting article citations in either RIS or BibTeX format for use with bibliographic software. To download either, just click the corresponding button.

The Web Viewer

BUGZ allows users to explore the content of available articles using an interactive web application (The Web Viewer). The web viewer does not support small devices, such as phones.

Scan vs. Page Numbers

One important concept when using the Web Viewer is the distinction between scan numbers and page numbers.

Scan numbers are always regular numbers and normally start at one (or sometimes two). They reflect the order in which the pages occurred in the article that was scanned, but scan numbers may not necessarily match the printed page number.

Page numbers are supposed to match the number that is on the page. However, these may not match the scan numbers for multiple reasons. The most common reason is that only some of the pages were scanned. In this case the page numbers will start with the page number of the first page which was scanned. The second common reason is that the scan contains title pages, prefaces, etc. which are not given a numeric page number in the print copy, but must be given a number in BUGZ. These pages normally use roman numerals for their page numbers. In some cases, a document may be missing page numbers, but scan numbers will always be present.

In the bottom left-hand corner, you will find the current scan number, the current page number and the total number of pages in the scanned article. You can edit the scan number or use the left and right arrow buttons to change pages. You can also use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard.

You can zoom in and out by holding down the Ctrl on your keyboard and scrolling while your mouse is over the main viewport. You can also press the plus and minus keys while holding down the Ctrl key. When you are zoomed in or out a little pop-up will appear displaying your current zoom level, accompanied by a button to reset the zoom level.

When you are zoomed in, you can scroll by either using the scroll bars at the edges of the viewport or using the scroll-wheel on your mouse. To scroll left and right, hold down the shift key while scrolling.

Side-Panel Tabs

The side-panel on the left has three tabs at the bottom: the thumbnails tab (shown by the page icon), the search tab (show by the magnifying-glass icon), and the download tab (shown by the icon with an arrow pointing down into a tray). You can click on an icon to change tabs, and the current tab will have its icon highlighted.

The Thumbnails Tab

The thumbnails tab contains a scrollable list of small thumbnail-sized images for each page, accompanied by the scan and page number for each. You can navigate to a page by clicking on either its thumbnail image or the accompanying text. The current page will have its entry highlighted. You cannot change the size of these thumbnails; if you wish to see a larger image then navigate to the page by clicking on the thumbnail image.

The Search Tab

The search tab contains options for both full-text and taxonomic name searches. These function the same as the site-wide basic and taxonomic name searches, except they only search content in the pages of the current article.

Once you have searched for something, you will be shown a list of scan and page numbers that contain content matching your search query. You can click on any of these to view the corresponding page.

When a search has been completed, sections on the current page which match the search query will be highlighted. Please note that this is subject to errors due to mismatches in the scanning and OCR (optical character recognition).

The Download Tab

The download tab contains options to download citations for the current article or to download specific page ranges as a pdf. You may leave the page range input blank to download the whole article.

The format for the page ranges is quite particular. You must use scan numbers, not page numbers. You must ensure that the starts and ends of ranges are separated by a single hyphen (-) and each range is separated by a comma (,). You must also ensure that there are no spaces in the input field.

You may specify a combination of individual pages and page ranges (e.g., “1,5-12” would specify scan 1, plus scans 5 through 12).